Gaspar Yanga—often simply Yanga or Nyanga (c.1545-?) was an African leader of a maroon colony of slaves in the highlands near Veracruz, Mexico during the early period of Spanish colonial rule. He is known for successfully resisting a Spanish attack on the colony in 1609. The maroons continued their raids. Finally in 1618, Yanga achieved an agreement with the colonial government for self-rule of the settlement, later called San Lorenzo de los Negros and also San Lorenzo de Cerralvo.
In the late 19th century, Yanga was named as a "national hero of Mexico" and “El Primer Libertador de las Americas", and 1932 the settlement he formed, located in today's Veracruz province, was renamed as Yanga in his honor.